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Vietnam Business Culture 101 Guide For Company Operation

Navigating the Vietnam business culture is a must for firms that aim to establish their presence in one of Asia’s most dynamic markets.

Vietnam is often perceived as business-friendly, yet beneath this facade lie intricate customs and nuances in business dealings. From subtle communication styles to cultural norms, understanding these unspoken rules will significantly lower the barriers to a successful market entry.


Challenges Faced by Companies in Adapting to Vietnam Business Culture

Vietnam has emerged as a go-to destination for global investors and businesses aiming to access its expansive market of over 100 million people. However, there is a catch! Beyond being one of ASEAN’s most populous nations, Vietnam boasts a rich tapestry of history and culture spread across its 58 provinces. This diversity also enriches its business culture with nuances that are both similar to and unique from other countries within the region.

More than simply overcoming language barriers, navigating Vietnam’s business culture requires companies to adeptly grasp the dynamics of interactions within organizations in Vietnam, including negotiation, proper etiquette, cultural sensitivity, and other less obvious expectations. 

In other words, gaining a deep grasp of the country’s business culture is anything but simple and will require businesses to invest time, effort, and the willingness to adapt, which may not be ideal as it could prolong the time for market entry even further. 

Additionally, having too much to learn can also be counterproductive, as firms may easily become confused and overwhelmed with the required information to digest regarding Vietnam’s intricate business culture. 

As a result, businesses often rely on a trusted market entry partner to help them navigate through the landscape more efficiently.


Vietnam Business Culture 101

Basic business culture to take note

Basic business culture to take note


Greeting Etiquette 

Initiating a conversation in Vietnam typically begins with a basic handshake, a slight bow, and maintaining eye contact while introducing yourself. The locals are generally friendly and often expect nothing more than a common “Xin Chao” (Hello) with their name mentioned right after. 

However, it is important to address others with the appropriate titles. The common way to refer to someone is by using Mr./Mrs./Ms. or their designation followed by their first name. If you want to address them in Vietnamese, make sure to apply the right titles of Anh/Chị/Em (Mr./Mrs. or Ms./For anyone younger than you) for each individual based on their age and gender, especially for seniors or superiors.


Meeting Etiquette 

Punctuality is highly valued in Vietnam when it comes to business meetings, but they do not expect you to arrive early. Still, we highly recommend being early to avoid the country’s daily heavy traffic and ensure timely arrival at the meeting. 

When joining a meeting, Vietnamese will greet others individually to foster positive first impressions. They will prioritize greeting the senior and superior first to show respect and professionalism. Moreover, name cards should be prepared for exchange and given out with both hands. 

Having a professional interpreter is highly recommended if you are meeting local partners who may not be well-versed in English to ensure clear communication and avoid misunderstandings, especially during negotiations.


Business Attire

The appropriate attire in Vietnamese business settings can vary depending on the context and location. Generally, white-collar environments are more common in the North, whereas the South tends to opt for casual yet polite wear. Regardless of the context, dressing formally when meeting with partners is advisable to convey respect and professionalism. 

By adhering to these standards, businesses signal their seriousness and sincerity in engaging with local partners. Additionally, dressing appropriately helps foster a sense of mutual respect and can facilitate smoother communication and rapport-building during meetings.


Engaging in Casual Conversation

Participating in casual conversations is recommended

Participating in casual conversations is recommended


Engaging in small talk before diving into serious business discussions is a common practice in Vietnam, serving as an icebreaker to foster rapport and build relationships. These casual conversations provide an opportunity for businesses to demonstrate their openness, friendliness, and willingness to connect on a personal level, which can leave a lasting positive impression. 

Additionally, participating in these informal exchanges allows for the establishment of common ground and can help set a relaxed and conducive atmosphere for the subsequent business negotiations.


Gift-giving & Reciprocation 

In Vietnam, the act of giving and receiving gifts is seen as an important gesture of goodwill and appreciation in both business and personal relationships. Normally, the types of gifts vary based on the occasion or the recipient, but the general rule is to avoid giving money as it is frowned upon. The only exception is during Tet, where money in a red envelope is considered lucky money for the recipient.

On the other hand, Vietnamese culture places a strong emphasis on reciprocity, meaning that gestures of goodwill or favors are expected to be reciprocated with equivalent gestures or gifts.  By leveraging this principle of reciprocity, businesses can foster trust and loyalty within their networks, ultimately contributing to their long-term success in the Vietnamese market.


Business Dining and Drinking

It is common for Vietnamese businesses to invite their partners out for dinners to express appreciation and build connections.  Beyond mere socialization, these dinner gatherings often serve as platforms for discussions, negotiations, and finalizing business agreements. 

Particularly in sectors like construction or manufacturing, hosting partners for lunch or dinner parties is regarded as a highly effective strategy for expanding networks and securing significant business deals. Such gatherings not only facilitate business transactions but also foster trust and camaraderie among the parties involved, laying a solid foundation for future collaborations and mutual growth.


“Face-saving” Concept

In Vietnam, the concept of ‘face’ holds great importance, symbolizing an individual’s reputation, dignity, and honor. Disagreement or direct rejection is often avoided to maintain harmony and relationships. Instead, people use indirect communication methods such as hints, implications, and suggestions. 

It’s expected that opinions are shared tactfully and humbly, and sensitive matters are handled discreetly or with the relevant parties to prevent discomfort or embarrassment. Consequently, businesses should be cautious not to inadvertently cause a ‘loss of face,’ as this can significantly impact relationships and business dealings.


Advanced Vietnam Business Culture 101

Capture the advanced business culture in Vietnam

Advanced Vietnam business culture tips


How To Build Business Relationships

Business relationships hold significant weight when doing business in Vietnam, often extending beyond professional interactions to social or personal connections. For instance, when selecting a business partner, Vietnamese companies often prioritize those with whom they have existing relationships, rather than firms with a good track record but no prior collaboration experience.

Furthermore, it’s quite common for business discussions to continue outside of formal office settings and hours. Following formal meetings, firms may have lunches or dinners with potential partners or clients, offering valuable opportunities to deepen relationships, gain insights into each other’s companies, and explore potential business ventures in greater detail.


Learn The Art Of Negotiating, And Anticipate Last-minute Changes

Business negotiations in Vietnam rarely succeed in one go, so it is likely to have follow-ups, which require persistence and the savviness to find a way around a denial or refusal from the other party. With these complexities in mind, it is vital to have the right people working on the negotiations. 

Foreign businesses in Vietnam usually hire locals to help them not only with translation or interpretation but also to have someone adept at addressing the challenges of dealing with the local business culture. 

On the other hand, businesses should also expect the possibility of last-minute changes, ranging from last-minute changes in meeting venues or representatives to major decision changes on business deals and contracts. As such, firms should be flexible and capable of agilely adapting to last-minute decisions instead of pushing hard to strictly follow earlier agreements, especially with Vietnamese government agencies and local business partners

In a way, this can be seen in a positive light, as it offers opportunities to present more advantageous proposals or adjust the consensus to achieve outcomes superior to what was initially agreed upon.


Develop A Great Working Culture In Vietnam

Navigating the Vietnam business culture is not just about doing business with partners; it also involves managing the local workforce for business operations within the country. Firms must prioritize fostering an environment where Vietnamese employees feel valued, respected, and supported, as these factors significantly influence employee satisfaction, morale, and productivity. 


Additionally, embracing flexibility, patience, and cultural sensitivity in business practices allows employees to feel more comfortable and empowered in their roles, ultimately contributing to a positive work culture and organizational success in Vietnam.


Conclusion – Navigating The Vietnam Business Culture With A Trusted Partner

Navigating the intricacies of the Vietnam business culture can pose challenges for businesses that are still new to the market. To lessen the burden, we highly recommend relying on a professional third-party partner who specializes in facilitating market entry in Vietnam.

By forming strategic partnerships, businesses gain access to a wealth of valuable insights, expertise, and support, empowering them to adapt more effectively and navigate the intricate nuances of the local business landscape. 

Datality Lab, a prominent research and data science consultancy, stands as a testament to the benefits of such collaborations. Leveraging the expertise and support provided by Launch JDI, Datality Lab successfully established its presence and forged invaluable connections within Vietnam. Read the full story here!


Explore how to enter the Vietnam market successfully with our next curated insight: Best Market Entry Strategy For Vietnam In 2024

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